HOW DOES DESIGN ENRICH OUR FUTURE?
Moderator Kim Hyunsuk Professor of Hongik University
Panel Baek Joon-sang Professor of Yonsei University
Yoon Hye-gyung Research Professor of Yonsei University
Lee Hyun-sung Professor at the Public Design Research Center of Hongik University
Kim Gyu-ri Officer in charge of Design Policy for Seoul Metropolitan City
Rhee Nami CEO of Studio BAF
The Seoul Design International Forum is being held under the theme of ‘How does design enrich our future?’. Presentations in the forum explained the issues of the urban environment that we face from various perspectives and proposed countermeasures. We will now have a panel discussion to hear the opinions our panels based on the contents that were presented today.
The concept of the competitiveness of cities recently became a key topic. Seoul Metropolitan City is also striving hard to enhance the quality of life in the city while making efforts to become a global city. The institution that assesses city competitiveness is setting various items related to the quality of life such as cultural exchange, ecological natural environment, ease of access, transportation, provision of rest and safety as evaluation indicators to evaluate the competitiveness of cities. I would like to hear opinions about the issues of various urban environments that Seoul is currently facing and the role that design can play from the perspective of the city’s competitiveness.
[Professor Lee Hyun-sung]
I believe keywords that were common across the presentations of all speakers in this forum were ‘people and coexistence’. In the past, while detailed fields slightly varied, discussion about design was mostly focused on the form, objet and target of design, but I think the key discussion point of today was ‘coexistence’ that allows people and nature to blend together.
We had an opportunity to review various design-related projects of Seoul Metropolitan City that had been executed and contributing to resolving social issues since 2014 in the 3rd pre-forum of the Seoul Design International Forum that was held in advance. ‘Maeum-ful’ public design demonstrative project that introduced natural factors into the classroom to relieve stress and prevent violence among youths placed various plants in classrooms based on the theory of biophilia, and ‘Hwamok Senior Citizen Center’ lifted the boundary between the supplier and the consumer by having the citizen experience group find issues rather than simply applying an existing universal design manual. ‘100-year garden’, the first dementia prevention park in Korea, provided an opportunity to manage cognitive health in daily lives and neighborhood parks by applying the concept pf AIC (Aging in Community), which involves the aspirations of senior citizens to spend their aged lives in the familiar place they have been residing in.
Deliverables of such projects are meaningful in that these were realized through design projects. Until now, design was used as means to maintain the landscape because it was only perceived as something that would beautify the exterior, but in the future, design will be used actively as implementation measures to resolve issues, and its values will also grow. Remarkable public designs in our daily lives, such as the shade that protects us from the scorching sun when we are standing in front of the crosswalks and the yellow carpet of the school zone that keeps the children safe on their way to school, are examples of the infrastructure that cannot be made with the existing law. The fact that such infrastructure on the streets is recognized for its value and the fact that design is being used as means and a strategy to implement such infrastructure means that the future design project of Korea will be able to evolve in the direction of resolving social issues. In addition, Design can establish a culture where the members of the society resolve various complex social issues together as a part of a single implementation culture. Therefore, I believe the best method would be to resolve issues through design, together with designers, when there are issues within a public space in a city. I hope that the positive models that are being proposed in the current design policies and projects of Seoul Metropolitan City will continuously be succeeded and expanded to execute the role of design.
The terminology, public design, has become a key topic, and public design projects have been carried out for quite a long time as national or municipal projects. I wonder whether we are conceptually stipulating the public design, in itself, as a subject that we are referencing because the terminology has become a common noun. Design is a practical culture, as described in the contents of today’s presentations and the pre-forum, and it is important for us to consider how we can apply this in our life of coexistence. Which area should design intervene in more actively to improve the quality of our lives in this perspective?
[Professor Yoon Hye-gyung]
We are always facing the public space and public areas, and along with private areas, these greatly impact the enhancement in quality of life. Public design for subjective satisfaction and safety that improves the quality of lives should be an appealing design. Appeal has to be felt voluntarily by users and it cannot be conveyed by force, and hence, public design has to be viewed from a universal design perspective.
Through universal design, public design should be used to deploy the concept of design for all and design that centers on people, who are the users. Four important factors that support this can be summarized into coexistence, sympathy, sharing and fairness. Among these, ‘sympathy’ would refer to understanding users. When we are sympathizing with users, we are not trying to understand them at the same eye level but from a perspective and viewpoint that is slightly lower, and thus, the definition of ‘sympathy’ is closer to understanding. For instance, we cannot say we fully understand those with disabilities by briefly going on the wheelchair. In order to truly sympathize with them, we need to make more efforts to make eye contact at a lightly lower place such as experiencing daily lives or carrying out outdoor activities on the wheelchair so that we are in their shoes for a certain period of time. Ability to sympathize with others is critical in spreading public design and universal design in our society, and in this regard, ‘Project to Accompany the Vulnerable Class’, which is being planned and executed by Seoul Metropolitan City, and ‘Mom and Dad Happiness Project’, which aims to build a city where child rearing can be respected, can truly be considered projects for sympathy.
Next is ‘coexistence’. How much understanding do we have about ‘living together’? In order to live together, non-exclusion related to the public characteristics, that is, integrated social factors that ensure that no one is excluded in our daily lives, needs to be considered together with the coexistence of people and people, and people and nature. Society of coexistence that applies the concept of such coexistence has to be pursued by the city to enhance the quality of lives for citizens. Another concept is ‘sharing’. Recently, various space sharing phenomenon such as shared home, shared parking lot and shared kitchen are spreading in terms of economics. This can be especially helpful for youths in the sense that daily lives can be carried out together without exclusion when they are coming in contact with public space. Last is ‘fairness’ for virtuous cycle of all, that is, justice. Public design can provide happiness and hope while enhancing the quality of living for all people when such factors are integrated.
According to the result of research conducted by a design company in UK, 93% of those with disabilities do not ride wheelchairs. Hidden disabilities that are mentioned would include illness such as panic disorder, lupus, diabetes, Alzheimer’s, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), or arthritis. Research showed 29 types of pictograms for those with hidden disabilities, and are making attempts to find more subjects. When we reflect such cases into our society, while it is important to make new attempts for the advancement of public design, we also need to break down the current content by category to review whether or not anyone is being excluded in the current system or whether or not there are hidden disabilities.
Furthermore, it is important to connect points that apply design to continuously induce the activities to be carried out without barriers and inconveniences in the environment or movement when the design is being implemented. According to Maslow’s 5 hierarchy of needs, our society has been providing physiological, safe and social design to the citizens, and the top-level design targets that aim to ensure self-respect and self-realization should be set to enhance the quality of life. Accumulation of data is also important. Our society can accurately discover issues in the process of accumulating data on the public space, and issues can be resolved together with professional designers once issues are accurately defined.
All of the content that had been mentioned before can end as policies that is just a formality or empty discussions if education on improving awareness is not preceded. Citizens and members of the society should be able to communicate and participate through the platform to achieve social integration. Moreover, we also need to create a venue for communication through training such as ‘universal design creative personality education’ that is currently being executed in Seoul. I hope such excellent cases that drive communication to various age groups will spread to more areas. Universal design grants life to the hardware called the public space. Since everything about public design is centered on people, that is, the users, I believe design activities that consider all users will be able to enrich our present times and the future. I will now close this session by summarizing our opinions with the following phrase. ‘Lives of citizens of Seoul would be embedded in the design, and design would be embedded in the lives of the citizens of Seoul’.
I think issues should be discovered and defined first when design is being implemented in a company or when design is being deployed as a part of a policy. The presentation by Jeff Risom of Gehl at the forum also mentioned that ‘behavioral analysis of human is the most important in the design process’. In particular, from the research on the correlation between public transportation and adolescent obesity that was mentioned in the presentation, we could learn that issues are being generated from areas that we had never thought of, and these are issues that can be discovered through an analysis of the human behavior. Therefore, in order to improve the quality of living for the citizens and enhance the competitiveness of cities, analyzing the behavior of citizens on various issues is a critical process to establish the strategy of city design.
Seoul Metropolitan City is also actively adopting such behavioral analysis in various design projects, and my understanding that it will continue to do so in the future. However, when we look at the organization of the city, it is divided into departments such as welfare and transportation, and therefore, there could be several issues depending on individual interests. Against this backdrop, what could be a way for the design department to efficiently reflect the behavioral analysis and design research methodology in the policy?
[Professor Baek Joon-sang]
The issues of the public sector that we are currently facing are difficult issues where several subjects such as social issues, cultural issues, environmental issues and political issues are complexly entangled. Furthermore, it is true that cross-departmental cooperation is more difficult in areas with a hierarchical organizational culture such as the public sector.
When we examine past thesis papers that conducted research on design-led innovation, there are cases where the top-down method was successful in a situation where several fields cooperated in relation to design. As a representative example, Apple that was led by Steve Jobs that we are all aware of executed top-down cooperation under the leadership of the CEO when designers and engineers cooperated. As such, sometimes, cooperation is carried out by force under someone with authority. Although Seoul Metropolitan City has an organizational culture that is very different from a company, I believe various cooperation opportunities would be discovered by the working-level if cooperation is strongly led by the mayor or vice mayor of the Seoul Metropolitan City.
Another method is for the designer to play the role of a facilitator and a connector. When I visited Kolding, Denmark in 2017, the mayor of Kolding said, ‘we are carrying out civic activities that are led by design.’ The Design Policy Department at Kolding is acting as a facilitator that aids in resolving the issue, and not as an agent that resolves the issues, and members of the Design Policy Department are each assigned to different departments to provide support or carry out discussions on whether or not the current issues of other departments can be resolved through design policies and technology. Design is used to carrying out work in a very academic and horizontal manner. Therefore, designer can play the role of the facilitator and can also hold participative workshops by gathering various stakeholders. As such, designers can propose various methods, resolve the current issues of various departments through design methodologies and gather them together so that the design department can share these with other designers, and at the same time, can also act as a connector that can lead cooperation.
For such methods to be execute properly, we need public officials with a certain level of knowledge on design. We need to assign talents with basic understanding on design activities even if they did not major in design, that is, silent designers, and I believe we also need a program to foster them as needed.
There could probably be various approaches, but ultimately, the most important thing that we have to do is to seeking out the method that is in line with the characteristic of the organizational culture of Seoul Metropolitan City and considering the ways to drive cooperation by gradually demolishing the thick wall between departments. We need to gradually approach this with patience because this process is not easy at all and would take a long time.
Could I ask you to explain how the design organization is configured in Seoul Metropolitan City and which work processes are being carried out and how?
[Officer Kim Gyu-ri]
In the past, there was an organization called the ‘Design Policy Department’ within the Culture Division of the design organization at Seoul Metropolitan City, and the organization was reformed as of August 19th to newly establish a Bureau-level organization called the ‘Design Policy Bureau’. Officer in charge of design policy and officer in charge of design industry were newly appointed, and the officer in charge of the city landscape that used to be in the Department of City Planning was merged to newly establish the Design Policy Bureau that is currently in operation.
The social issues that today’s cities face are very complex and are shown as behaviors of various causes and results. As you mentioned before, there would be many situations that require cross-departmental cooperation, and there are many complex issues that are relatively difficult for a certain department to execute alone other than the central department. Therefore, measures for internal cooperation are being carried out more smoothly than in the past, and with the recent establishment of the new organization, demand for design is also increasing in relation to the work of each department. Until now, design support and cooperation were mostly related to physical areas such as space or product, but we believe that it would be important to ultimately expand out to the intangible administrative services in the application of design along with such tangible items.
The direction that the officer in charge of design policy has to pursue to enable this is to ensure that the members of the organization learn while experiencing the problem-solving process in cooperation with design, and to have the members understand the efficacy by repeating these processes. If I could explain with an example, many people asked questions or was skeptical about the correlation between crime prevention and design when the ‘crime prevention design project’ that is currently being operated under the name of ‘Living Assurance Design Project’ first started 10 years ago. However, participants came to understand how design resolved social issues when the police organization, district offices, corporations, schools, resident groups and artist associations cooperated to design issues and resolve those issues together, and could also understand the efficacy while directly experiencing the fact that design can help in resolving issues. This is just a single case, but I believe that if these cases were to be accumulated for a long period of time, the design department will sufficiently play its role within the organization in resolving various complex social issues.
This forum proposed keywords such as public things, common things and sharing together in public design process when public characteristic was mentioned in a presentation. What types of efforts should be made by various stakeholders that are involved in the design policy to secure such public characteristics in the process of planning or in the process of implementing the design?
[Professor Lee Hyun-sung]
Many excellent indicators on public characteristics have been constructed including the current design guideline. However, we would be faced with the issue on how the public value that is systemized by law can be realized in the process of applying such indicators.
Conclusively, I would like to propose to turn Seoul Metropolitan City into a massive public design laboratory. We could confirm the hidden values of design through various demonstrative projects, and in this regard, we need an approach that is centered on value, guidance and recommendation from the perspective of regulation-based city management plan to take the next leap into an advanced society. In addition, design will be respected and be validly used within the space when it is pursued as a policy that centers on participation and implementation as a part of the top-down method and masterplan.
As an example, if the case of the yellow carpet that was established around the school zone to ensure the safety of students had been unilaterally installed on the site based on the decision and the agreement of administrators and designers alone, there would have been no opportunity to sufficiently raise the understanding of local residents and users, and thus, it would have been difficult to convey the values of design. It could have actually received complaints of local residents or could have incurred legal issues. Tim Brown mentioned that gratification comes in doing. Based on this, we can respect the value of design, and we have to establish an integrated administration system to drive cooperation among various departments, instead of a single department, within the administrative institution or to attract investment of private companies that support social values or public values. Design results that can satisfy everyone will be achieved only when various stakeholders ultimately construct a governance through cooperation even if the project is small.
Public characteristics should go beyond being evaluated with a high score or a low score in terms of objective indicators and regulations to practical deployment of design by the public. It would be advisable to demolish the boundary between the consumers and suppliers and to construct a model of cooperation by putting equal weight on the rights and obligation of citizens through the construction of a governance. As mentioned before, I hope Seoul Metropolitan City will become a massive public support laboratory and a governance-based model to turn itself into a world-class public design city.
I believe the presentation that received the most comments in this forum was the presentation by Professor Rhee Nami who described her personal experience. She explained the concept on well-leaving that goes beyond well-dying from the perspective of design of life, and proposed expanding support for visiting care, expanding support for residential culture and the construction of common safety net as a party of the policy. Moreover, she mentioned that concepts such as universal design, inclusive design, participative design or social design would have to be diversely accepted in the policy of the city. What effort should be made by Seoul Metropolitan City for these to be developed into sustainable cases?
[CEO Rhee Nami]
All of the content that were mentioned in the presentations and the panel discussion of this forum can be thought of in connection to the design of life. In case of design, voluntary participation is significant, and design should be contextual and without disconnect. When we apply this to our lives, it is similar in that it can never be fragmented because all individuals are the agents and owners of lives who live their lives while simultaneously resolving various issues of daily lives. Seoul Metropolitan City also has to consider such contextual characteristics of design. I believe we will be able to respond flexibly if we approach issues that are difficult to be resolved with policies and legal standards from the perspective of users, as if we are finding clues in opinions that are proposed based on the needs of users.
For instance, if we were to apply the circumstances within a household and stand in the shoes of a homemaker, we can see that homemakers are resolving various issues of daily lives contextually and flexibly. They constantly think about house chores that needs to be done when moving around the house and executing them, and portray the sights they see, sounds they hear and activities they do with their hands differently, such as folding laundry while watching TV, and at the time, listening to the voices of children and thinking about what to make for dinner with the ingredients that are in the refrigerator. We have to complete tasks by dividing up roles because it may be difficult for us to execute all of these complex and contextual daily tasks and chores in the house alone. When members of the household divide the house chores such as disposal of recyclable waste and doing the laundry, each member will understand the efficacy of working together after completing each task, and will get a desire to do a better job of the tasks in charge. In addition, each individual will get better at work when the same experience is repeated, and hence, I believe sustainability is achieved when circumstances are reviewed comprehensively and approached from various angles to resolve the issues.
Issues of the city should be approached from a macro perspective for sure. Many different circumstances of various citizens are entangled in a city, and since everyone is a stakeholder, equal rights and individual positions of each member should be considered. Also, the city has to provide aid so that various people can live a stable life throughout their entire lifetime that flows contextually. I wonder how it would be for individuals to approach issues in the same manner they view their daily lives instead of thinking about the issues too broadly as macro issues. We can seek out resolutions to various issues in our lives that an individual cannot resolve alone by examining the issues from the public perspective and linking the contexts through probability and relationships.
Also, generations would have to be linked. It is important for these tasks to be not limited to the tenure of a certain mayor, and to be continuously carried out. Personal happiness and well-living and well-leaving can be achieved and families would become completed only when the parent’s generation, our generation and the children’s generations are connected in our lives. Ultimately, I believe it is important to think about the plan from a contextual perspective that considers the next 100 years.
Various things that are requested of us during the lifecycle, or various generations, and those that are required are very diversely connected. What efforts should municipal governments such as Seoul Metropolitan City make to improve the quality of our lives from the perspective of sustainability?
[Professor Baek Joon-sang]
An impressive part from the previous presentation was the part that mentioned how truly meaningful leaving is about welcoming the last moments of our lives while maintaining dignity and respect together with family friends and friends in a familiar environment. However, when we look at our surroundings, there are many people who spend the last moments of their lives alone in lonesome long-term care facilities. Therefore, an environment that ensures people to be together with the people in their surroundings should be created so that people can sustain lives with their families in a familiar environment, and for such an environment to be sustained until the end.
A concept of the ’15-minute city’ is introduced in the book “Livable Proximity” written by Ezio Manzini. 15-minute city is a concept that says that we need to create a city that can be approached in 15 minutes through bicycles or by walk when we are trying to make use of basic services that are required in our daily lives, that is, services such as life and work, education, healthcare and entertainment. The mayor of Paris who was appointed in 2020 is actually emphasizing the concept of the 15-minute city in Paris, France, and cities such as Milan and Barcelona are also focusing on designing cities based on the concept of 15-minute or 20-minute cities.
When we think about the accessibility of services in Seoul, not a lot of time is taken because Seoul is a highly populated city with well-developed public transportation. However, for Seoul to become a city with multiple targets such as the 15-minute city, there are still issues that would have to be resolved such as the expansion of social safety net, vitalization of communities, improvement of the educational and natural environment, and enhancement of access to public transportation. The concept of the 15-minute city is the process to reform the time and space in our lives with the citizens at the center. I believe this can be sufficiently considered in the process of providing design service and the design of the city. Moreover, issues that we are facing today are very difficult and multi-dimensional. Issues such as climate change, aging, imbalance between large and small/medium-sized cities, destruction of biodiversity and environmental pollution are environmental and social issues, and are areas that require multidisciplinary cooperation. Design organization should actively consider how to understand and approach such issues to resolve them.
In the past, the Denmark Design Center presented four steps of design utilization by an organization. There is an organization that does not use design at all, an organization that used design for aesthetic purpose, an organization that reflects design in the vision, and an organization with a leader that leads based on a full understanding. Where does Seoul Metropolitan City stand? We could see that Seoul Metropolitan City is already using design as a part of the problem-solving process through various cases that were introduced. However, authority needs to be granted and support needs to be provided to the design department, above all, for design to be able to lead or facilitate resolution of difficult issues of the complex and multi-dimensional modern society and to lead as the facilitator. I believe that design of Seoul will become competitive and lead to the competitiveness of the city only when sufficient support and authority are granted.
In the presentation at the forum, Jeff Risom mentioned that ‘experiences of daily lives are almost as important as symbolic experiences’, and I believe that the design of Seoul Metropolitan City has strived hard to enhance the symbolic experience. The design policy of Seoul Metropolitan City is acting as a facilitator while raising the values of the daily lives, and paradoxically, it would be difficult for the design to be resolving the issues alone when such a direction is taken. I would like to ask you to present opinions about the direction that the design organization of Seoul Metropolitan City will take in pursuing the design policy.
[Officer Kim Gyu-ri]
As mentioned, it is very rare for a certain project to be carried out focusing on design alone. I think this is also linked to the inherent nature of design. Design may be limited in its role because it has a synergistic effect when it is combined with other areas, but when we think backwards, because of this, it could also be applicable to the administrative activities of the city. The direction that the design policy of Seoul Metropolitan City should take in the future is to combine the perspectives of design across all administrative activities of the city, and for this to be possible, it would be important to connect and systemize the design process across all administrative activities of the city.
Seoul Metropolitan City created guidelines and checklists so that universal design can be applied to various parts such as public infrastructure, public buildings and public spaces that the city is pursuing to create an environment where all citizens can enjoy universal lives by introducing universal design, and also ensured that the guidelines and checklists could be reviewed through various deliberation processes. In the process, various attempts and efforts were made so that actual design process can be applied, such as providing consulting when there is a lack of understanding about the universal design in each department and creating a space to apply universal design as a sample of space by type.
As such, I hope to create even more processes in the future because design can actually be applied and expanded to the administrative activities of the city when the cases are actually applied to various processes. Furthermore, in addition to the role of design and creating a beautiful and attractive city, Seoul Metropolitan City would have to continue design policies to create a process that is related to intangible services.
In this forum, we were informed of various cases of Singapore, Japan, the Netherlands and Seoul Metropolitan City, and we took a detailed look into how issues were resolved. I believe one of the objectives of the Seoul Design International Forum is to reflect such content and opinions in the policy of Seoul Metropolitan City. I would like to ask which ideas you hope to reflect in the design policy of Seoul Metropolitan City.
[CEO Rhee Nami]
City is a public space that is subject to various types of people, but in truth, it also signifies the gathering of individuals. Interest on things that can change through a life of an individual is very important. Of the content that was proposed in the theme of the presentation regarding a happy ending, ‘care sharing housing in the form of long-term rental’ can be thought of as a space of an individual that is somewhat far off from the public nature. However, in a comprehensive sense, it is much easier for the prototype on the case that provides a participative opportunity that allows people to live well voluntarily to be approached from the public that is based on legal regulations and policies rather than considering it to be a personal space. Application of universal design is critical in selection, design and operation of land and construction of facility that can be equally experienced by the public, and ordinance and directions for the operation of the space must be clearly established. I also want to explore the possibility of planning and implementing projects to realize shared care and construction of attractive buildings in small scrap lands of the city.
[Professor Yoon Hye-gyung]
I believe many projects of Seoul Metropolitan City that were continuously carried out for the past 10 years with deep interest on universal design were triggers for improving awareness of many citizens on the universal design. I hope we will reap fruitful results in many projects that are currently being carried out and are being planned in Seoul Metropolitan considering that the awareness of the universal design has been greatly enhanced.
We can all face impairment, we can temporarily be impaired when we are in despair because we cannot continue the work that we have done. Universal design is required in our society because there are hidden disabilities that we are not aware of, that is, the parts that are missing from the conventional social scope, and I hope that a guideline can be constructed through a more thorough approach so that everyone can equally receive policy benefits in the society.
[Professor Lee Hyun-sung]
This may be a very personal thought, but according to research and actual working-level experience, I sometimes wonder whether the scope of design should be separated by subjects, such as public institution, private sector and residents. I often thought that the needs and voices of citizens were not sufficiently conveyed to the municipal governments or institutions that diligently carry out design projects because there was nothing shared between stakeholders for the process that was executed until now. As another method to resolve this, citizens can directly improve inconveniences, private companies can resolve issues of certain regions through CSR of ESG projects, or various projects that improve the environment can be executed, but there are limitations in the scope because the subject of execution vary. If municipal governments or those who have the administrative power to implement the design can gather together to construct governance and from a consistent scheme, surplus value of private companies can be incorporated into the frame called ‘design’, and residents can directly resolve regional issues related to civil complaints. In addition, the main agent of public administration should accept design as a sort of a culture or strategy to resolve issues of citizens so that design can be naturally used in daily lives. I believe that the future of cities and design will brighten when there is continuous interest from such a perspective.
Recently, ESG has become a critical topic among corporations. As such, many corporations are aspiring to cooperate with various public sectors, but in particular, there seems to be several difficulties in cooperating with municipal governments and public institutions. The possibility of cooperation in the public sector together with the design policy of Seoul that resolves issues from various service perspectives based on design thinking was also mentioned in the presentation made by an expert in charge of ESG activities of a company at the pre-forum. If projects for the public were to be executed as an extension of the ESG activities of companies, what should be considered for collaboration between the public sector and corporations?
[Professor Baek Joon-sang]
Based on my personal experience, there is a need to identify the tendency and the organizational culture of groups and public areas. Drive for implementation is critical in the process or designing and implementing a project, and for public officials with limited resource and time, many realistic considerations are made to put in additional time and efforts. This is because implementation of something new within a defined framework or creative and experimental attempts are not reflected as positive evaluation or does not apply as incentives since the evaluation metrics of a public officials are quantified. Therefore, there is a need to identify an environment and culture that is unique to such public organization from the perspective that aspires to cooperate, and in addition, many thoughts would have to be given to ways to continuously carry out new innovations and attempts.
I would like close the panel discussion with the closing remark from the officer in charge of the design policy of Seoul.
[Officer Kim Gyu-ri]
I will make sure that many good opinions proposed in the panel discussion at the Seoul Design International Forum are applied to the administrative efforts. I believe that continuous support will be provided in the future as a new organization called the Design Policy Bureau has been established. There are projects where citizens, corporations and universities cooperate among projects that are being executed by the Design Policy Bureau. I was able to discover ideas and solutions that had not emerged before through the opinions on design governance that were discussed today, and I hope to actively reflect these ideas that were proposed from various perspectives when we operate the organization and execute projects, and I also hope to receive advices as we implement these ideas. I would like to ask for your continued interest and support.