3rd Pre-forum for 2022 Seoul Design International Forum Part3TALK 3. Value of the public design shaped together with citizens
City for Disabilities going for tour and cultureFrom the point of view of mobility-impaired wheelchair users, barrier-free design and universal design are quite different. As Korea is heading towards becoming an aging society, it is expected that the demand for accessibility will increase. The gap must be filled through the application of universal design. Urban life for the mobility-impaired The way in which the mobility-impaired people use the city is very different from that of the non-disabled people. Typically, there is a difference between infrastructure and daily needs. Because disabled people using wheelchairs have difficulty using public transportation, it is common either to use an adaptive taxi that can accommodate a wheelchair or to reduce the frequency of going out. Therefore, mobility is limited, and long-distance movement is impossible, so connection between regions is significantly reduced. Most mobility-impaired people have a great fear of moving out of their place of residence. There are also differences in the way they move. Many older subway stations do not have elevators because the anti-discrimination laws did not apply in the past. In fact, it's only been a few years since wheelchair users have actually been able to ride the subway since related laws such as the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) started to take effect. Stairs were removed, escalators were installed, and facilities were installed to allow wheelchair users to move between floors. In addition, there is a problem in that information about the location display of the disabled toilet or elevator is not properly given due to lack of awareness of the versatility of the information acquisition method. This is usually a problem caused by the fact that supplier-oriented guide signs are made, and people with mobility difficulties, travelers with language barriers, and tourists with difficulties feel the inconvenience.
Universal Design welfare facilities meet with the system / Cases in Norway and AustraliaUniversal Design has been used for a very long time and has been implemented as part of Seoul's design policy to create an urban environment that is safe and convenient for all citizens, regardless of gender, age, nationality and disability. But it is still difficult for citizens to feel it directly or to fully popularize it within the remit of our daily lives. At this point, we need to think about what strategies the Seoul Metropolitan Government should use in relation to its policies, understand how some countries, like Norway and Australia, understand "different" through the UD system, and look at examples where Seoul can choose to apply UD in the future, especially in relation to important issues regarding welfare services, facilities and space. 1. Origins of Universal Design Universal Design is design for everyone. Its scope is wide-ranging, from products, architecture, environment, services, the urban environment and social institutional improvement, which should be easy to use regardless of age, gender, nationality or disability. Universal in the dictionary sense can be interpreted as universal or all, and it also contains the concept of planning and designing products, buildings and environments from the beginning to make them available to everyone. Universal Design was initially designed as a standard for people with disabilities and the elderly but over time, the scope of its necessity expanded as it gradually targeted a larger number of people. The concept of UD is seen as a concept of life-span design or trans-generational design which goes far beyond the concepts of the barrier-free design, accessible design, and adaptable design of the past.
Design Seoul 2.0 Design Policy and Future StrategiesWhat projects does the Seoul Metropolitan Government pursue to create a ‘fun and vibrant city of Seoul’? The Seoul Metropolitan Government is actively pursuing the 「Design Seoul 2.0 Project」 in its endeavor to establish ‘Seoul as a fun and vibrant city’. This comprehensive plan focused on propelling Seoul into a top 5 global city characterized by an abundance of vitality and charm. The objective is to create a city that is cherished by global citizens, a city where the creativity of its citizens is fully realized, and a city that adheres to global standards while preserving Seoul’s unique identity. To achieve this vision, ‘Active Seoul’ is based on five principles which are empathetic, inclusive, contribution, resilient, and sustainable design. The following is an overview of project initiatives. ① Empathetic design that feels pride and pleasure in the uniqueness of Seoul. ② Inclusive design for everyone. ③ Contribution design created by citizens and businesses together. ④Resilient design responsible for the safety and health of citizens. ⑤ Sustainable design that saves the environment and economy. Further details of the project will be outlined based on these five principles.
A new tool to discover an integrated and demand-oriented policy agenda for near future__ De-sign:Re-formDesign, which first started as an activity of creating tangible goods, is now creating intangible values in the form of experience and service design. As demand for digital services including mobile applications rises, user experience design that creates a system that evokes emotions started to get attention, and service design which focuses on finding invisible needs of users and developing a new service model has been widely adopted and used in various areas of industry including hospitals, banks, education institutions, etc.
Impact and evaluation in designing social innovationWhat is the most important agenda in social innovation design? This island metaphor (image) is useful to think about designing. This metaphor helps us to pay attention to both the visible things at the surface, like design products, materials, methods and technologies, and also the invisible things under the water, like values, behaviours, mindsets and worldviews. Designing is a way to make what is invisible under the water, visible. For designing that pursues social outcomes, it is very important to pay attention to people’s values, behaviours, mindsets and worldviews under the water, and undertake designing that materalises what people regard as valuable outcomes for their social well-being. When designing social innovation, this also means listening to local communities and residents, and understanding what matters to them that may be invisible, under the water, and collaborating with them to materialize those values as outcome of designing. There are various tools, methods and approaches in design that are used to achieve those social outcomes together.
Universal design of Yokohama City Current events in designThe evolution of universal design in Japan Yokohama City is an area with a population of 3.77 million. Its area is about three quarters of Seoul, and it is divided into 18 wards. It started with a population of 500 150 years ago, and after the port was established, the population increased. However, the rapid population increase between 1960 and 1970 caused problems in urban development. Yokohama is currently a city with a significant aging population. Although this is a problem for Japan as a whole, based on the analyzed data, the population growth trend of Yokohama City is expected to peak in 2019. After that, the proportion of the elderly population is expected to continue to increase, and it is expected that one-third of the total population will be elderly by 2030. Looking at the map showing the aging population, it is like looking at the history of how Yokohama's housing development has taken place. The beginning of universal design in Japan was triggered by the Tokyo Olympics 50 years ago. The Tokyo Olympics, held in 1964, introduced the use of pictograms to solve the problem of communicating with foreigners. In 1965, Braille blocks were introduced, and actual installation began in 1967. In 1969, awareness of the need to make the city accessible to wheelchairs increased. Braille blocks were first introduced in the provincial cities to the western part of japan, which is also the case with barrier-free access in Japan, which started in provincial cities rather than the capital.
The Necessity of Introducing Pedestrian Application for the Visually Impaired to Build a Smart City Based on Universal DesignAccessibility means that disabled and non-disabled people can use all services and products equally, and it can be said that it is in line with universal design that pursues design for everyone. So, how can people with disabilities communicate externally? They are being helped by various assistive technologies. Assistive technology refers to all products, equipment, software, or systems that help individuals with disabilities to achieve their full potential. As the concept of assistive technology becomes universal, the paradigm for disability has changed. As a representative example, screen readers and electronic information terminals are assistive technologies that help visually impaired people to communicate, and include screen readers and electronic information terminals. With technological help, visually impaired people can independently perform various tasks, such as searching the Internet and writing documents. Today, these assistive technologies are being applied in a way that provides convenient services to anyone rather than being a technology only for the disabled. For example, audiobooks, which existed in the past as a service to help visually impaired people in reading, are now becoming universal as a technology for everyone, as it has become one of the types of reading that non-disabled people can choose according to their needs.
Online Platform as a center for Seoul DesignThe boundaries are becoming blurry. The restriction of time and space and the limit of subjects no longer apply when solving common problems and creating new value. Nowadays, various subjects, including online and offline environments, virtual and real worlds, industrial and public domains, and city governments and citizens, are preparing for the future in different areas. The new dimension of energy manifested from combinations that jump over the boundaries is a catalyst to solve daily problems and solidify the city that provides the base for everyday life.
Universal Design for Public SpaceKorea's aging population has increased rapidly since 2000, and it is expected to become a full-fledged aged society around 2018. The Third Basic Plan for Aging Society with Low Fertility, announced on October 18, 2015, includes various plans, such as reviewing the age classification for elderly from 65 to 70 years old. This shows that the aging of the population is recognized as a full-fledged social phenomenon, and that policy preparations are in progress. The concept and principle of universal design as a social phenomenon As awareness of our aging society increases, the application of universal design is also increasing. The first attempt at Universal Design was initiated by the Danish Parents' Association for Disabilities, and later emerged in 1970 as Barrier Free Design and Inclusive Design. The term ‘Universal Design’ was first introduced in Korea around 2000. The concept of universal design was defined by Ron Mace, director of the Universal Design Center at the University of North Carolina, as "designing products, spaces, or buildings that are considered for use by as many people as possible." The same concept was called Barrier-Free Design in Japan. Europe uses the terms Inclusive Design and Design for All. Universal design is an environmental safety design that provides a convenient and fair opportunity for anyone, regardless of age, gender, nationality, or disability, and covers a wide range of areas, including education, culture, information and services.
Design in the Era of Disruptive Paradigm ShiftIn today’s world, we’re facing a rapid paradigm shift. This presentation focuses on the role and significance of design in the midst of such changes and the future direction of urban public design. My personal experiences on paradigm shifts in the realm of design come into play in assessing the past and the present. The presentation also aims to facilitate the exchange of ideas on how we should change and adapt in the face of the paradigm shift.
Policy direction identified from the analysis of the diffusion process of Life Safety (Crime Prevention) DesignThe anonymous cities that we have been building allowed us to have maximum freedom and make various choices, however, inappropriately, the cities have mercilessly reduced many alternative choices such as collective community action that were available in the past. Only for the limited purpose of reviving the collective environment, physical design of living environment must be used.