City for Disabilities going for tour and cultureFrom the point of view of mobility-impaired wheelchair users, barrier-free design and universal design are quite different. As Korea is heading towards becoming an aging society, it is expected that the demand for accessibility will increase. The gap must be filled through the application of universal design. Urban life for the mobility-impaired The way in which the mobility-impaired people use the city is very different from that of the non-disabled people. Typically, there is a difference between infrastructure and daily needs. Because disabled people using wheelchairs have difficulty using public transportation, it is common either to use an adaptive taxi that can accommodate a wheelchair or to reduce the frequency of going out. Therefore, mobility is limited, and long-distance movement is impossible, so connection between regions is significantly reduced. Most mobility-impaired people have a great fear of moving out of their place of residence. There are also differences in the way they move. Many older subway stations do not have elevators because the anti-discrimination laws did not apply in the past. In fact, it's only been a few years since wheelchair users have actually been able to ride the subway since related laws such as the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) started to take effect. Stairs were removed, escalators were installed, and facilities were installed to allow wheelchair users to move between floors. In addition, there is a problem in that information about the location display of the disabled toilet or elevator is not properly given due to lack of awareness of the versatility of the information acquisition method. This is usually a problem caused by the fact that supplier-oriented guide signs are made, and people with mobility difficulties, travelers with language barriers, and tourists with difficulties feel the inconvenience.
Challenges and Tasks of City of SEOULThere are numerous definitions of universal design by experts and scholars. Among the definitions, I think The University of Buffalo defines universal design best: "A design process that enables and empowers a diverse population by improving human performance, health and wellness, and social participation.” Universal design is not a result, but rather a process of making. In this context, through various projects, the city of Seoul is implementing universal design that involves the public, solves everyday problems, and ensures that no one is marginalized. Each and All, between individuality and versatility, how can a design for a particular person become a design for all?
Universal Design for Health Care Facilities[Start of Universal Design at Eunpyeong Hospital in Seoul] The perception of the psychiatric ward is not positive - not only does it bear the social stigma of a dangerous disease, but also the medical environment surrounding the ‘mentally disabled’. Psychiatric facilities are often underdeveloped, and while things may be changing, the doctor-patient relationship is often one-way, with the patient seen only as the ‘recipient’.
The Change of Daily Life, Social Problem Solving Design in SeoulParadigm change in public design and the emergence of social problem-solving design Seoul is the political, economic, social and cultural center of Korea. Korea industrialized in a short period of time due to a period of rapid economic growth that is sometimes called the ‘miracle on the Han River’. Although the brand value of Seoul might have risen, has the quality of life of citizens improved along with it?
Creative Design for Social Problem Solving and Social Responsibility TherethroughThe top 10% of the world's population are able to spend $10 a day (about 10,000 won). This means that the other 90%, being unable to spend $10 a day, are very poor. 80% of them spend only about $2 a day. Design is not about making things pretty and beautiful to increase sales, but about finding and solving problems in a certain situation. Solving problems in an innovative and creative way is an essential part of design. Which group has more problems in life: the 10% of the population who can spend $10 a day or the 90% who can't? The 10% of people have issues with desires, and 90% have issues with needs. In other words, 90% of people have problems that are directly related to survival and they need to be considered more seriously. But 99.9% of designers only design for the top 10%. The real social problem is to leave it alone and only engage in the problem of fueling human desires.
Development of Participatory Universal Design CultureThe Center operates civic participation groups to consider the “viewpoint of the weak” or the “viewpoint of the citizens.” The first civic participation group recruited last year monitored eight public facilities in Seoul, including Donuimun Museum Village, Oil Tank Culture Park, and the Seoul Museum of History. The second civic participation group this year is visiting facilities that are close to the people of Seoul, such as the Sejong-daero Walkway in Gwanghwamun, Jongmyo Shrine, Yejang Park, and the Seoul Museum of Craft Art. The civic participation group uploads posts about the benefits or improvements that are needed for each place they monitor on social media or blogs to share information with the people.
The Social Role of ArchitectsPresentation will be mainly divided into three topics: 1. Investigating potential of paper tube as structure - Paper is typically seen as something weak without its own strength. I will explain about how I started using paper tubes as architectural element, challenges I went through, and how something so seemingly weak can become something so strong and durable. 2. Architectural and Design Works - Architecture plays a vital role as part of our city. They in fact make up and define the city. I will explain some of the major architectural works, from small to large scale projects. I will also show a number of projects with timber structure. Timber is one of many materials from the nature, and is known to be very environmentally friendly (for example emits much less CO2 than concrete and steel).
Public Design and Platform Media Facade of CommunicationPlatform media facade of communication in the city New platform is now required for a city image that incorporates the storytelling based on the regional/historical identity as the need to improve the aged downtown (original downtown) is being emphasized. Therefore, there are more municipal governments that desire to re-brand various parts of cities that are aiming towards the fourth industrial cities for citizens and visitors who come to cities. Cities are scrambling to develop the public design system and to transform into future cities. Panaplex-type bus shelters are being installed as DID (Digital Infotainment Display) that enable mobile-linked interactive functions, and the city maps are being implemented in various parts of the cities as AI information that is guided by idols, along with experiential AR/VR media. Although it may be partial, ecosystem evolution that uses media that aims for comprehensive media in key hub cities is transforming cities in line with the hyper-connected era through activities such as pilot operation of unmanned vehicles.
Universal Design for Public SpaceKorea's aging population has increased rapidly since 2000, and it is expected to become a full-fledged aged society around 2018. The Third Basic Plan for Aging Society with Low Fertility, announced on October 18, 2015, includes various plans, such as reviewing the age classification for elderly from 65 to 70 years old. This shows that the aging of the population is recognized as a full-fledged social phenomenon, and that policy preparations are in progress. The concept and principle of universal design as a social phenomenon As awareness of our aging society increases, the application of universal design is also increasing. The first attempt at Universal Design was initiated by the Danish Parents' Association for Disabilities, and later emerged in 1970 as Barrier Free Design and Inclusive Design. The term ‘Universal Design’ was first introduced in Korea around 2000. The concept of universal design was defined by Ron Mace, director of the Universal Design Center at the University of North Carolina, as "designing products, spaces, or buildings that are considered for use by as many people as possible." The same concept was called Barrier-Free Design in Japan. Europe uses the terms Inclusive Design and Design for All. Universal design is an environmental safety design that provides a convenient and fair opportunity for anyone, regardless of age, gender, nationality, or disability, and covers a wide range of areas, including education, culture, information and services.
Universal Design Project for Convenient Spaces: Public RestroomsThe Republic of Korea is experiencing radical demographic changes, such as the super-aged society and an increase in the foreign population. The public sector is obliged to create comfortable spaces for parents to go out with infants as well as an environment for seniors, persons with disabilities, and children. Recently, public spaces have been improved with the acknowledgment of diversity and the reinforcement of legal regulations. However, laws do not regulate details of small-scale unit spaces, which have low priorities when it comes to spatial improvement. For example, the SMG remodeled many aged community service centers during the “‘Outreach Project for Spatial Improvement of Community Service Centers,” but restrooms were not included in the scope of this project. As such, Seoul has built and improved good spaces, but it excluded small-scale spaces like restrooms. Among diverse spaces, restrooms, in particular, are crucial for solving physiological issues. Therefore, restrooms should be available at any place. Though Koreans tend to allow people to use restrooms freely, many restrooms in old buildings of Seoul are not open to the public. Accordingly, the Design Policy Division of Seoul and the Seoul Universal Design Center (“Center”) selected restrooms, places with an urgent need for universal design among small-scale unit spaces, as the first target for improvement, as well as a target for the “Outreach Project for Spatial Improvement of Community Service Centers.”
Welcome Speech - Mayor, Oh Se-HoonHello, I'm Seoul mayor, Oh Se-hoon. I would like to express my gratitude and welcome to domestic and overseas speakers who are participating in Seoul Design International Forum 2022 and the citizens who are watching online.
Resource Circulation of the City and Sustainable DesignThe life system of today’s humanity is the result of economic growth, and problems that major cities face are mainly focused on areas that can be resolved by technological advancement and economic growth, such as poverty and illness. However rapid growth and advancement across the globe led to qualitative diversification of urban issues, and the humanity focused on the concept of sustainable development and limit in growth resulting from social imbalance and unsustainable phenomenon that are being observeds regardless of region. The concept of sustainability was first mentioned in the report, The Limits to Growth written by the Club of Rome in 1972. World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED,1987) defined ‘sustainability’ as ‘development that meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs’, and it is recently being used broadly across economic, management, climate, environmental and national policies and private activities.